The Canadian General Standards Board recently issued a revised standard for flammability of textiles – CAN/CGSB-4.2 No.27.5-2023, Textile test methods – Flame resistance – 45° angle test – One second flame impingement.
Canada’s Textile Flammability Regulations require the flame spread properties of a textile material to be determined in accordance with standard CAN/CGSB-4.2 No. 27.5. The new amended version of CAN/CGSB No.27.5-2023 supersedes CAN/CGSB-4.2 No. 27.5-2008 and CAN/CGSB-4.2 No.30.3-1994.
The method requires a specimen supported at an angle of 45° and a flame applied to its upper surface for one second.
Guideline changes are as follows:
- Added definitions for “base burn”, “charred / charring” and “melting’:
- Base burn – the base of a specimen having a raised fiber surface is ignited, charred, melted or fused to a point where the damage is apparent from the underside of the specimen.
- Charring – formation of carbonaceous residue during pyrolysis or incomplete combustion.
- Melting – phenomena accompanying the softening of a material under the influence of heat (including shrinking, dripping, and burning of molten material, etc.).
- Incorporated dry cleaning requirements from CAN/CGSB-4.2 No. 30.3-1994
- Added informative Annex B outlining burning codes to describe results:
- Did Not Ignite (DNI)
- Ignited But Extinguished (IBE)
- Surface Burn (SB)
- Surface Burn, Base Burn (SBBB)
- Surface Flash (SF)
- Surface Flash, Base Burn (SFBB)
- Timed Surface Flash (TSF)
- Timed Surface Flash, Base Burn (TSFBB)
- Added informative Annex C to describe testing steps related to presence of flame retardants
- Updated figures
- Updated washing and drying parameters, cooling times and criteria for testing additional specimens
Textile products manufactured, imported, advertised, or sold in Canada are subject to the Canada Consumer Product Safety Act (CCPSA) and must meet the flammability requirements set out in the Textile Flammability Regulations. Under the Textile Flammability Regulations (SOR/2016-194), the specifications for flammability requirements on textile products when tested in accordance CAN/CGSB 4.2 No. 27.5 must be as one of the following:
- Flame spread time for textile products without a raised fiber surface must be greater than 3.5 seconds
- Flame spread time for textile products with a raised fiber surface that exhibits ignition or fusion of its base fibers must be greater than 4 seconds.
- Flame spread time for bedding without a raised fiber surface, or bedding with a raised fiber surface that exhibits ignition or fusion of its base fibers, must be greater than 7 seconds.
- Textile test method CAN/CGSB-4.2 No. 27.5-2023
- Industry Guide to Flammability of Textile Products in Canada
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