SAFEGUARDS | FoodNO. 131/20
Permethrin (CAS number 52645-53-1) is a member of the pyrethroid class of pesticides. Similar to other pyrethroids, permethrin acts on the nervous system of insects. It interferes with sodium channels to disrupt the function of neurons, and causes muscles to spasm, culminating in paralysis and death. Permethrin can be effective by contact or ingestion and also acts as a mild repellent. It is used on or in numerous food and feed crops, livestock and livestock housing, modes of transportation, structures, buildings (including food handling establishments), Public Health Mosquito abatement programs, and numerous residential use sites including use in outdoor and indoor spaces, pets, and clothing.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) evaluated that permethrin was a weak carcinogen but it was highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates, therefore, it was classified as a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP). Permethrin was first registered, and tolerances established, in the United States in 1979 for use on cotton and between 1982 and 1989 an additional 55 crop tolerances were approved for a wide variety of crops, including various fruits and vegetables, meat, milk and eggs. 
Recently, the revised tolerance expression makes clear that the tolerances cover residues of permethrin and its metabolites and degrades. The tolerance limits will be determined by measuring only permethrin [(3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl 3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl)-2,2- dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate], as the sum of its cis- and trans- isomers in or on the commodity.  Tolerance limits for permethrin are specified in Table 1.
|COMMODITY||TOLERANCE LIMIT (PPM)|
|Cherry subgroup 12-12A
|Fennel, Florence, fresh leaves and stalks
|Leaf petiole vegetable subgroup 22B
|Peach subgroup 12-12B
|Tea, plucked leaves
|Vegetables, tuberous and corn, subgroup 1C
|Tolerances with regional registrations;
Fruit, small, vine climbing, except fuzzy kiwifruit, subgroup 13-07F
This regulation is effective July 28, 2020. Objections and requests for hearing must be received on or before September 28, 2020.
What do the changes mean?
This update has the potential to affect agriculture producers, food manufacturers, and pesticide manufacturers. Any imported foods destined for the United States must not be found to contain permethrin at levels exceeding the tolerance limit. To ensure compliance with food safety regulations, food producers should seek professional advice.
SGS is committed to keeping you informed of regulation news and developments. Leveraging our global network of laboratories and food experts, SGS provides a comprehensive range of food safety and quality solutions including analytical tests, audits, certifications, inspections, and technical support. We continually invest in our testing, capability, and state-of-the art technology to help you reduce risk, and to improve food safety and quality. For more information, please visit our website: www.foodsafety.sgs.com.
The regulation will be in force on July 28, 2020. Objections and requests for hearing be received on or before September 28, 2020.
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