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Through our global network of laboratories, SGS delivers a broad spectrum of independent geochemical sample preparation and analysis including sodium peroxide fusion and lithium metaborate fusion. 

Fusion involves the complete dissolution of the sample in molten flux. Fusions are generally more aggressive than acid dissolution methods and are suitable for refractory mineral dissolution. Our experts will help you select a method that is fit-for-purpose.

Sodium Peroxide Fusion

Sodium carbonate, sodium peroxide and sodium hydroxide is a potent mixture of three fluxes. This very basic, strongly oxidizing mixture renders most refractory minerals soluble. Sodium peroxide fusion is commonly used to decompose the most refractory minerals. Low sample/flux ratios and a suitable dilution will produce a solution with acceptable levels of total dissolved solids for ICP-AES analysis. A major advantage of this sample preparation technique is that the fusion is done at low temperatures (about 500°C), thus avoiding the loss of volatile elements.

ICP90A - Sodium Peroxide Fusion / ICP-AES

LIMITS LIMITS LIMITS
Al 0.01% - 25% K 0.1% - 25% Sc 5 ppm - 5%
As 30 ppm - 10% La 10 ppm - 10% Sn 50 ppm - 5%
Ba 10 ppm - 10% Li 10 ppm - 10% Sr 10 ppm - 1%
Be 5 ppm - 2.5% Mg 0.01% - 30% Ti 0.01% - 25%
Ca 0.1% - 35% Mn 10 ppm - 10% V 10 ppm - 5%
Cd 10 ppm - 5% Mo 10 ppm - 10% W 50 ppm - 5%
Cr 10 ppm - 10% Ni 10 ppm - 10% Y 5 ppm - 5%
Co 10 ppm - 10% P 0.01% - 25% Zn 10 ppm - 10%
Cu 10 ppm - 10% Pb 20 ppm - 10%
Fe 0.01% - 30% Sb 50 ppm - 10%

ICP90B - Sodium Peroxide Fusion / ICP-AES - Nickel Laterite Package (Includes drying at 105°C for 8 hrs.)

LIMITS LIMITS LIMITS
Al2O3 0.01% - 25% Fe2O3 0.01% - 30% P2O5 0.01% - 25%
CaO 0.1% - 35% K2O 0.1% - 25% SiO2 0.01% - 25%
Cr 0.01% - 10% MgO 0.01% - 30% TiO2 0.01% - 25%
Co 0.01% - 10% MnO 0.01% - 10%
Cu 0.01% - 10% Ni 0.01% - 10%

ICM90A - 55 Elements by Sodium Peroxide Fusion / ICP-AES and ICP-MS

LIMITS LIMITS LIMITS
Ag 1ppm - 0.1% Ge 1ppm - 0.1% Sb 0.5ppm - 1%
Al 0.01% - 25% Hf 1ppm - 1% Sm 0.1ppm - 0.1%
As 5ppm - 10% Ho 0.05ppm - 0.1% Sn 1ppm - 1%
Ba 0.5ppm - 1% In 0.2ppm - 0.1% Sr 0.1ppm - 1%
Be 5ppm - 0.25% K 0.1% - 25% Ta 0.5ppm - 1%
Bi 0.1ppm - 0.1% La 0.1ppm - 1% Tb 0.05ppm - 0.1%
Ca 0.1% - 35% Li 10ppm - 5% Th 0.1ppm - 0.1%
Cd 0.2ppm - 1% Lu 0.05ppm - 0.1% Ti 0.01% - 25%
Ce 0.1ppm - 1% Mg 0.01% - 30% Tl 0.5ppm - 0.1%
Co 0.5ppm - 1% Mn 10ppm - 10% Tm 0.05ppm - 0.1%
Cr 10ppm - 10% Mo 2ppm - 1% U 0.05ppm - 0.1%
Cs 0.1ppm - 1% Nb 1ppm - 1% V 5ppm - 1%
Cu 5ppm - 1% Nd 0.1ppm - 1% W 1ppm - 1%
Dy 0.05ppm - 0.1% Ni 5ppm - 1% Y 0.5ppm - 0.1%
Er 0.05ppm - 0.1% P 0.01% - 25% Yb 0.1ppm - 0.1%
Eu 0.05ppm - 0.1% Pb 5ppm - 1% Zn 5ppm - 1%
Fe 0.01% - 30% Pr 0.05ppm - 0.1% Zr 0.5ppm - 1%
Ga 1ppm - 0.1% Rb 0.2ppm - 1%
Gd 0.05ppm - 0.1% Sc 5ppm - 5%

HAS90A - Hydride Elements by Sodium Peroxide Fusion / Hydride AAS

LIMITS LIMITS LIMITS
As 0.5ppm - 1000ppm Bi 0.5ppm - 1000ppm Sb 0.5ppm - 1000ppm

Lithium Metaborate Fusion

Lithium metaborate fusion dissolves the major rock-forming elements of a sample as well as most trace minerals. ICP95A is a lithologic package, which includes major and some trace elements analyzed via ICP-AES. For a further suite of trace elements, the same solution is analyzed via ICP-MS.

ICP95A - 18 Elements by Lithium Metaborate Fusion / ICP-AES (Lithologic Package)

LIMITS LIMITS LIMITS
Al2O3 0.01% - 75% MgO 0.01% - 30% Sr 10ppm - 10%
Ba 10ppm - 10% MnO 0.01% - 10% TiO2 0.01% - 25%
CaO 0.01% - 60% Na2O 0.01% - 30% Y 10ppm - 10%
Cr2O3 0.01% - 10% Nb 10ppm - 10% Zn 5ppm - 1%
Fe2O3 0.01% - 75% P2O5 0.01% - 25% Zr 10ppm - 10%
K2O 0.01% - 25% SiO2 0.01% - 90% LOl 0.01% - 50%

IMS95A - Trace Elements by Lithium Metaborate Fusion / ICP-MS

LIMITS LIMITS LIMITS
Ag 1ppm - 0.1% Ho 0.05ppm - 0.1% Ta 0.5ppm - 1%
Ce 0.1ppm - 1% La 0.1ppm - 1% Tb 0.05ppm - 0.1%
Co 0.5ppm - 1% Lu 0.05ppm - 0.1% Th 0.1ppm - 0.1%
Cs 0.1ppm - 1% Mo 2ppm - 1% Tl 0.5ppm - 0.1%
Cu 5ppm - 1% Nb 1ppm - 1% Tm 0.05ppm - 0.1%
Dy 0.05ppm - 0.1% Nd 0.1ppm - 1% U 0.05ppm - 1%
Er 0.05ppm - 0.1% Ni 5ppm - 1% V 5ppm - 1%
Eu 0.05ppm - 0.1% Pr 0.05ppm - 0.1% W 1ppm - 1%
Ga 1ppm - 0.1% Rb 0.2ppm - 1% Yb 0.1ppm - 0.1%
Gd 0.05ppm - 0.1% Sm 0.1ppm - 0.1%
Hf 1ppm - 1% Sn 1ppm - 1%

Rely on SGS’s unique depth and breadth of analytical expertise when you need to be sure of procedures, protocols and laboratory practice.